April 18, 2015



DB. Lenat. 2019. Not Good As Gold: Today’s AI’s Are Dangerously Lacking In AU (Artificial Understanding), Forbes. Article

A. Sharma, K. Goolsbey. 2019. Simulation-Based Approach to Efficient Commonsense Reasoning in
Very Large Knowledge Bases, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. PDF


DB. Lenat. 2018. Sometimes the Veneer of Intelligence is Not Enough, Cognitive World. Article

A. Sharma, K. Goolsbey. 2018. Learning Search Policies in Large Knowledge Bases by Randomized Exploration, Advances in Cognitive Systems. PDF


A. Sharma, K. Goolsbey. 2017. Identifying Useful Inference Paths in Large Commonsense Knowledge Bases by Retrograde Analysis, In AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (San Francisco, CA), AAAI-17. PDF


DB. Lenat. 2016. What Would Turing Say?, AI Magazine, 37:1, 97-101. PDF

A. Sharma, M. Witbrock, and K. Goolsbey. 2016. Controlling Search in Very large Commonsense Knowledge Bases: A Machine Learning Approach, in The Fourth Annual Conference on Advances in Cognitive Systems. PDF


M. Witbrock, K. Pittman, J. Moszkowicz, A. Beck, D. Schneider, and DB. Lenat. 2015.  Cyc and the Big C: Reading that Produces and Uses Hypotheses about Complex Molecular Biology Mechanisms. In AAAI Workshop: Scholarly Big Data 2015, (Austin, TX). PDF


DB. Lenat, PJ. Durlach. 2014. Reinforcing Math Knowledge by Immersing Students in a Simulated Learning-By-Teaching Experience. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. Article


A. Sharma, KD. Forbus. 2013. Automatic Extraction of Efficient Axiom Sets from Large Knowledge Bases. In AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (Bellevue, WA), AAAI-13. PDF


C. Fortuna, B. Fortuna, M. Vucnik, K. Kenda, A. Moraru, and D. Mladenic. 2012. Towards Building a Global Oracle: a Physical Mashup Using Artificial Intelligence Technology. In The Third International Workshop on the Web of Things, (Newcastle, UK). PDF

C. Pierce, D. Booth, C. Ogbuji, C. Deaton, E. Blackstone, and DB. Lenat. 2012. SemanticDB: A Semantic Web Infrastructure for Clinical Research and Quality Reporting. Current Bioinfomatics, 7(3) PDF

A. Sharma, KD. Forbus. 2012. Modeling the Evolution of Knowledge in Learning Systems. In AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (Toronto, ON), AAAI-12. PDF


M. Assel, A. Cheptsov, G. Gallizo, I. Celino, D. Dell’Aglio, L. Bradesko, M. Witbrock, and E. Della Valle. 2011. Large Knowledge Collider: A Service-oriented Platform for Large-scale Semantic Reasoning. In International Conference on Web Intelligence, Mining and Semantics, (Sogndal, Norway),WIMS’11. PDF

H. Cheng, A. Tamrakar, S. Ali, Q. Yu, O. Javed, J. Liu, A. Divakaran, HS. Sawhney, M. Witbrock, J. Curtis, et al. 2011. Team SRI-Sarnoff’s AURORA System @ TRECVID 2011. In NIST TRECVID Workshop. PDF

DB. Lenat. 2011. Developing and Harnessing a Teachable Agent to Achieve Learning as Effective as a Personal Tutor. Google Scholar RTF

J. Ludwig, A. Davis, M. Abrams, and J. Curtis. 2011. A Hidden Domain for Human and Electronic Students. In IJCAI Workshop on Agents Learning Interactively from Human Teachers, (Barcelona, Spain). Google Scholar RTF


D. Foxvog. 2010. Cyc. Theory and Applications of Ontology: Computer Applications. 259-278. Google EBook

M. Grobelnik, D. Mladenić, and M. Witbrock. 2010. Text Mining for the Semantic Web. Encyclopedia of Machine Learning: 21, 978-980. Preview

DB. Lenat, M. Witbrock, D. Baxter, E. Blackstone, C. Deaton, D. Schneider, J. Scott, and B. Shepard. 2010.  Harnessing Cyc to Answer Clinical Researchers’ ad hoc Queries. AI Magazine, 31:3. PDF


D. Baxter, B. Klimt, M. Grobelnik, D. Schneider, M. Witbrock, and D.Mladenić. 2009. Capturing Document Semantics for Ontology Generation and Document Summarization. Semantic Knowledge Management: Integrating Ontology Management, Knowledge Discovery, and Human Language Technologies, 141-154. Preview

E. Coppock, D. Baxter. 2009.  A Translation from Logic to English with Dynamic Semantics. Logic and Engineering in Natural Language Semantics, Volume VI. Preview

J. Curtis, D. Baxter, P. Wagner, J. Cabral, D. Schneider, and M. Witbrock. 2009.  Methods of Rule Acquisition in the TextLearner System. In AAAI Spring Symposium on Learning by Reading and Learning to Read, 22-28. PDF

M. Witbrock, E. Coppock, and RC. Kahlert. 2009. Uniting A Priori and A Posteriori Knowledge: A Research Framework. In The International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence Workshop, (Pasadena, CA), 22-28. PDF


D. Fensel, F. van Harmelen, B. Andersson, P. Brennan, H. Cunningham, E. Della Valle, F. Fischer, M. Witbrock, et al. 2008. Towards LarKC: a Platform for Web-scale Reasoning. In The Second IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing. PDF

RC. Kahlert. 2008. Danto’s Recipe for Clio: Leveraging Narrative Insights for Modeling Historiography in Symbolic Knowledge Bases. The International Journal of Interdisciplinary Social Sciences, Volume 2. PDF

RC. Kahlert, B. Rode, D. Baxter, M. Witbrock, V. Forbus, L. Birnbaum, P. Shah, D. Schneider, K. Panton, A. Belasco, and D. Crabbe. 2008.  Tracking Quantity Fluctuations Using STT. In AAAI 2007 Fall Symposium on Computational Approaches to Representation Change during Learning and Development, (Arlington, VA). PDF

B. Rode, RC. Kahlert. 2008. Representational Reformulation in Hypothesis-Driven Recognition. In AAAI 2007 Fall Symposium on Computational Approaches to Representation Change during Learning and Development, (Arlington, VA). PDF


B. Rode. 2007.  Strategies for Hypothesis-Driven Recognition in Rule-Based Systems. In AAAI 2006 Fall Symposium on Capturing and Using Patterns for Evidence Detection, (Washington, DC). PDF

M. Taylor, C. Matuszek, B. Klimt, and M. Witbrock. 2007. Autonomous Classification of Knowledge into an Ontology. In The Florida AI Research Society Conference, (Key West, FL), FLAIRS. PDF

M. Taylor, C. Matuszek, P. Smith, and M. Witbrock. 2007. Guiding Inference with Policy Search Reinforcement Learning. In The Florida AI Research Society Conference, (Key West, FL), FLAIRS. PDF


S. Crago, J. McMahon, C. Archer, K. Asanovic, R. Chaung, K. Goolsbey, et al. 2006. CEARCH: Cognition Enabled Architecture. In The Tenth Annual High Performance Embedded Computing Workshop, (Lexington, MA). PDF

J. Curtis, J. Cabral, and D. Baxter. 2006. On the Application of the Cyc Ontology to Word Sense Disambiguation. In The Florida AI Research Society Conference, (Melbourne Beach, FL), FLAIRS, 652-657. PDF

C. Matuszek, J. Cabral, M. Witbrock, and J. DeOliveira. 2006. An Introduction to the Syntax and Content of Cyc. In 2006 AAAI Spring Symposium on Formalizing and Compiling Background Knowledge and Its Applications to Knowledge Representation and Question Answering, (Palo Alto, CA). PDF

M. Naphade, J. Smith, J. Tesic, S. Chang, W. Hsu, L. Kennedy, A. Hauptmann, and J. Curtis. 2006. Large-Scale Concept Ontology for Multimedia. IEEE MultiMedia, Volume 13, 86-91. PDF

K. Panton, C. Matuszek, DB. Lenat, D. Schneider, M. Witbrock, N. Siegel, and B. Shepard. 2006. Common Sense Reasoning – From Cyc to Intelligent Assistant. Ambient Intelligence in Everyday Life, 1-31. PDF

P. Shah, D. Schneider, C. Matuszek, RC. Kahlert, B. Aldag, D. Baxter, J. Cabral, M. Witbrock, and J. Curtis. 2006. Automated Population of Cyc: Extracting Information about Named-entities from the Web. In The Florida AI Research Society Conference, (Melbourne Beach, FL), FLAIRS, 153-158. PDF


D. Baxter, B. Shepard, N. Siegel, B. Gottesman, and D. Schneider. 2005.  Interactive Natural Language Explanations of Cyc Inferences. AAAI 2005 International Symposium on Explanation-aware Computing. PDF

J. Cabral, RC. Kahlert, C. Matuszek, M. Witbrock, and B. Summers. 2005. Converting Semantic Meta-Knowledge into Inductive Bias. 15th International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming, (Bonn, Germany). Article

J. Curtis, G. Matthews, and D. Baxter. 2005. On the Effective Use of Cyc in a Question Answering System. In IJCAI Workshop on Knowledge and Reasoning for Answering Questions, 61-70. PDF

C. Deaton, B. Shepard, C. Klein, C. Mayans, B. Summers, A. Brusseau, M. Witbrock, and DB. Lenat. 2005.  The Comprehensive Terrorism Knowledge Base in Cyc. In 2005 International Conference on Intelligence Analysis, (McLean, VA). PDF

K. Forbus, L. Birnbaum, E. Wagner, J. Baker, and M. Witbrock. 2005. Analogy, Intelligent IR, and Knowledge Integration for Intelligence Analysis: Situation Tracking and the Whodunit problem. In 2005 International Conference on Intelligence Analysis, (McLean, VA). Article

D. Foxvog. 2005. Instances of Instances Modeled via Higher-Order Classes. Foundational Aspects of Ontologies: German Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (Koblenz, Germany), FOnt 2005. Article

C. Matuszek, M. Witbrock, RC. Kahlert, J. Cabral, D. Schneider, P. Shah, and DB. Lenat. 2005.  Searching for Common Sense: Populating Cyc from the Web. AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (Pittsburgh, PA), AAAI-05. PDF

D. Ramachandran, P. Reagan, and K. Goolsbey. 2005. First-Orderized ResearchCyc: Expressivity and Efficiency in a Common-Sense Ontology. In AAAI Workshop on Contexts and Ontologies: Theory, Practice and Applications (Pittsburgh, PA), AAAI-05. PDF

B. Rode. 2005.  Towards a Model of Pattern Recovery in Relational Data.  In 2005 International Conference on Intelligence Analysis, (McLean, VA). PDF

D. Schneider, C. Matuszek, P. Shah, RC. Kahlert, D. Baxter, J. Cabral, M. Witbrock, and DB. Lenat. 2005. Gathering and Managing Facts for Intelligence Analysis. In 2005 International Conference on Intelligence Analysis, (McLean, VA). PDF

B. Shepard, C. Matuszek, CB. Fraser, W. Wechtenhiser, D. Crabbe, Z. Güngördü, J. Jantos, T. Hughes, L. Lefkowitz, M. Witbrock, DB. Lenat, and E. Larson. 2005.  A Knowledge-Based Approach to Network Security: Applying Cyc in the Domain of Network Risk Assessment. AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (Pittsburgh, PA), AAAI-05. PDF

N. Siegel, B. Shepard, J. Cabral, and M. Witbrock. 2005.  Hypothesis Generation and Evidence Assembly for Intelligence Analysis: Cycorp’s Nooscape Application. In 2005 International Conference on Intelligence Analysis, (McLean, VA). PDF

M. Witbrock, C. Matuszek, A. Brusseau, RC. Kahlert, CB. Fraser, and DB. Lenat. 2005.  Knowledge Begets Knowledge: Steps towards Assisted Knowledge Acquisition in Cyc. In 2005 AAAI Spring Symposium on Knowledge Collection from Volunteer Contributors, 99-105. PDF


A. Belasco, J. Curtis, RC. Kahlert, C. Klein, C. Mayans, and P. Reagan. 2004. Representing Knowledge Gaps Effectively. Practical Aspects of Knowledge Management, (Vienna, Austria), PAKM 2002. Article

T. O’Hara, S. Bertolo, M. Witbrock, B. Aldag, J. Curtis, K. Panton, D. Schneider, and N. Salay. 2004. Inferring Parts of Speech for Lexical Mappings via the Cyc KB. In 20th International Conference on Computational Linguistics (Geneva, Switzerland). PDF

N. Siegel, K. Goolsbey, RC. Kahlert, and G. Matthews. 2004. The Cyc System: Notes on Architecture. PDF

N. Siegel, G. Matthews, J. Masters, RC. Kahlert, M. Witbrock, and K. Pittman. 2004. Applying Cyc: Using the Knowledge-Based Data Monitor to Track Tests and Defects. Intelligent Agent Architectures: Combining the Strengths of Software Engineering and Cognitive Systems, Technical Report, AAAI-04, (San Jose, CA), 74-79. PDF

M. Witbrock, K. Panton, S. Reed, D. Schneider, B. Aldag, M. Reimers, and S. Bertolo. 2004. Automated OWL Annotation Assisted by a Large Knowledge Base. International Semantic Web Conference, (Hiroshima, Japan), ISWC2004, 71-80. PDF


D. Mahler. 2003. Holistic Query Expansion using Graphical Models.  New Directions in Question Answering. Google Scholar RTF

J. Masters, Z. Gungordu. 2003. Structured Knowledge Source Integration and its Applications to Information Fusion. In 5th International Conference on Information Fusion, (Annapolis, MD). Preview

T. O’Hara, N. Salay, M. Witbrock, D. Schneider, B. Aldag, S. Bertolo, K. Panton, F. Lehmann, J. Curtis, M. Smith, D. Baxter, and P. Wagner. 2003. Inducing Criteria for Mass Noun Lexical Mappings Using the Cyc Knowledge Base and its Extension to WordNet. In Fifth International Workshop on Computational Semantics, (Tilburg, Netherlands), IWCS-5. PDF

M. Witbrock, D. Baxter, J. Curtis, D. Schneider, RC. Kahlert, P. Miraglia, P. Wagner, K. Panton, G. Matthews, and A. Vizedom. 2003. An Interactive Dialogue System for Knowledge Acquisition in Cyc. In 18th International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (Acapulco, Mexico), IJCAI-03. PDF


S. Aitken, J. Curtis. 2002. A Process Ontology. In European Knowledge Acquisition Workshop, (Siguenza, Spain). EKAW 2002. 108-113. Preview

J. Masters 2002. Structured Knowledge Source Integration and its applications to information fusion. In 5th International Conference on Information Fusion, (Annapolis, MD). Preview

K. Panton, P. Miraglia, N. Salay, RC. Kahlert, D. Baxter, R. Reagan. 2002. Knowledge Formation and Dialogue Using the KRAKEN Toolset. In AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (Albert, Canada), AAAI-02, 900-905. PDF

S. Reed, DB. Lenat. 2002. Mapping Ontologies into Cyc. In AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence, (Albert, Canada), AAAI-02. PDF


F. Lehmann, D. Foxvog. 1998. Putting Flesh on the Bones: Issues that Arise in Creating Anatomical Knowledge Bases with Rich Relational Structures. AAAI Technical Report. PDF


DB. Lenat, 1996. From 2001 to 2001: Common Sense and the Mind of HAL. Hal’s Legacy: 2001 as Dream and RealityPDF


DB. Lenat. 1995.  Artificial Intelligence. Scientific American.

DB. Lenat. 1995.  Cyc: A Large-Scale Investment in Knowledge Infrastructure. Communications of the ACM, 38. Preview

DB. Lenat, NJI. Mars. 1995. Steps to Sharing Knowledge. Toward Very Large Knowledge Bases. Google EBook


DB. Lenat, RV. Guha. 1994.  Enabling Agents to Work Together. Communications of the ACM, 37.


C. Oresky, DB. Lenat, A. Clarkson, and S. Kaisler. 1991.  Strategic Automatic Discovery System. Knowledge-based simulation: methodology and application, 223-260. Google EBook


DB. Lenat, RV. Guha. 1990.  Building Large Knowledge Based Systems Reading. Addison Wesley.

DB. Lenat, RV. Guha. 1990.  Cyc: A Midterm Report. Communications of the ACM: 8, 33. Article