Nations are considered to be a kind of geopolitical entity (see below). Each nation, or country, is a nation-state having its own territory, population, and government, whether or not it is fully independent. For example, Scotland is a country, even though it is a part of the United Kingdom. One kind of Nation is the “independent country”. Independent countries are distinct, independent geopolitical entities generally recognized by the international community. An independent country typically has a relatively stable government, enforced borders, its own currency, laws, and culture. Examples include the United States of America, Germany, Liberia, Mongolia, India, Taiwan (the Republic of China), and Honduras.
Government is treated as a relationship between an organization and the political entity which it has governing authority over. For example, we would say that a regional government claims to be the government of some geopolitical entity (see below), is recognized as such at least informally, and effectively functions as such (by administering the internal and external affairs of that geopolitical entity), whether or not the regional government has formal diplomatic recognition. Effectively functioning as a government includes having the power to settle disputes, collect revenue, and provide services. Note that the US government is the government of the United States of America, but not that of Ohio (the State).
A Geopolitical Entity is a group of people and/or organizations that controls some geographical region. Each geopolitical entity includes a governing body, but is more than just that governing body. Some examples of geopolitical entities are the city of Tokyo (Japan), the Bronx (the borough in New York), the state of Alaska, Rwanda, Singapore, InnerMongolia, Somerset County (England), and Taiwan (the Republic of China).