Organism Parts

#$Organism-Whole   organisms

    A specialization of #$BiologicalLivingObject. Each instance of #$Organism-Whole is a biological living object (BLO) that is a whole, and not part of some other BLO. Most instances of #$Organism-Whole are capable of existing and reproducing while physically separate from other organisms (with allowances for eating and mating). Abnormal BLOs which are nonetheless considered to be instances of #$Organism-Whole include instances of #$Virus, as well as sterile hybrids and colony organisms, like those in slime molds or the instances of #$PortugueseManOfWar.
    guid: bd58c4d6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalLivingObject 
    direct generalization of: #$Animal #$MulticellularOrganism #$AquaticOrganism #$TerrestrialOrganism #$Plant #$Carnivore #$MoneraKingdom #$Heterotroph #$Autotroph #$Microorganism #$EukaryoticOrganism

#$OrganismPart   organism parts

    A specialization of both #$PhysicalPartOfObject and #$BiologicalLivingObject. Each instance of #$OrganismPart is an anatomical part of an organism. This collection includes the gross anatomical parts and microscopic anatomical parts of every individual of every species.
    guid: c1005766-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$TemporalStuffType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalLivingObject 
    direct generalization of: #$MuscleTissue #$Sac-Organic #$CellPart #$Tumor #$PlantPart #$ExternalAnatomicalPart #$InternalAnatomicalPart #$AnimalBodyRegion

#$PlantPart   plant parts

    A specialization of #$PlantBLO and #$OrganismPart. Each instance of this collection is a physical part of some #$Plant. An important specialization of this collection is #$BotanicalOrgan; but #$PlantPart also includes many smaller plant parts which display a similar level of organization -- they have vascular tissue, ground tissue, and an epidermis -- but are not included in the traditional understanding of a #$BotanicalOrgan (i.e. leaves, stems, roots and flowers). See also #$PlantPartType.
    guid: bd58ee6f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$PlantBLO  #$OrganismPart 
    direct generalization of: #$Fruit #$BotanicalOrgan #$Seed

#$PlantPartType   types of plant part    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    A collection of collections. Each element of #$PlantPartType is a collection of parts of plants, characterized by their structure and function, rather than along taxonomic lines. Since #$PlantPartType is a #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType, any two instances of it (such as #$NutShell and #$Leaf) can be assumed disjoint, unless we know that one is a subset of the other. (For more information, see comment on #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType.)
    guid: c0fdeed5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType #$SecondOrderCollection
    direct specialization of: #$OrganismPartType 

#$Cell   biological cells    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of living cells; a specialization of #$BiologicalLivingObject. Each instance of #$Cell is one of the basic structural units of nearly all living things, consisting (at least) of cytoplasm bounded by a cell membrane. Only the living structures viruses, mitochondria, and plastids are not composed of cells.
    guid: bd58ee63-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$OrganismConstituentType #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalLivingObject 
    direct generalization of: #$EukaryoticCell #$SingleCellOrganism

#$EukaryoticCell   eukaryotic cells

    A specialization of #$Cell. Each instance of #$EukaryoticCell is a cell that serves as the basic structural unit of a eukaryotic organism. These cells have a membrane-bound nucleus and other organelles. Multicellular Organisms generally have #$EukaryoticCells; #$EukaryoticCell DNA has introns. Certain #$EukaryoticCells, like the red blood corpuscles of #$Persons with heathy #$Spleens, lack nuclei.
    guid: bd58eee7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$Cell 
    direct generalization of: #$HaploidCell #$Protozoan

#$AnimalCell   animal cells    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of #$Cells that #$Animals and parts of #$Animals are made of.
    guid: bd58c15b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$EukaryoticCell 

#$BotanicalCell   botanical cells    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    A subset of #$Cell. #$BotanicalCell is the collection of cells which constitute the elements of #$Plant and #$PlantPart, e.g., the cells making up elements of #$BotanicalOrgan, of #$Seed, and of #$Spore-PlantLifeStage.
    guid: bd58ede5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$EukaryoticCell 

#$HaploidCell   haploids

    A specialization of #$EukaryoticCell. Each instance of #$HaploidCell is a cell which has a single chromosome set. For example, gametes such as sperm and ova are haploid cells (see #$Gamete). There also haploid forms of some mature multicellular organisms.
    guid: c10c1d14-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$EukaryoticCell 
    direct generalization of: #$Gamete

#$DiploidCell   diploids    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of #$EukaryoticCells with paired chromosomes (two sets during the metaphase of mitosis). This is the standard arrangement for the cells in the bodies of adult multicellular organisms.
    guid: c10c1a8f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$EukaryoticCell 

#$CellPart   cell parts    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of structures which are typically found and formed as parts of #$Cells. This covers components of both #$EukaryoticCells and #$ProkaryoticCells. It includes organelles, vesicles, cell walls, extracellular matrix, plasma membranes, receptors, cellular humours, microtubules, etc.
    guid: c10c2471-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$TemporalStuffType
    direct specialization of: #$MicroscopicScaleObject  #$OrganismPart 

#$AnimalBLO   animals or body part

    A specialization of #$BiologicalLivingObject that includes all living animals, body parts of living animals, and body regions of living animals. #$AnimalBLO is thus the union (see #$collectionUnion) of #$Animal, #$AnimalBodyPart, and #$AnimalBodyRegion (qq.v.).
    guid: c0fe0761-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalLivingObject 
    direct generalization of: #$AnimalBodyPart #$SpermCell #$Animal #$AnimalBodyRegion

#$Ovum   ova

    A specialization of #$Gamete. Each instance of #$Ovum is a specialized gamete cell produced by meiosis (see #$Meiosis) in the reproductive tract of a female animal. Each ovum usually has half the number of chromosomes that a regular body cell does, and when fertilized by a sperm cell (see #$SpermCell), it becomes a zygote and continues to develop into a mature individual animal. See also #$FemaleAnimal, #$SexualReproductionEvent.
    guid: bd58bd8a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$Gamete 

#$SpermCell   sperm

    A specialization of #$Gamete. Each instance of #$SpermCell is a specialized gamete cell which is produced by meiosis in the reproductive tract of a male animal. Each sperm cell usually has half the number of chromosomes that regular body cells do, and when it fertilizes an ovum (see #$Ovum), the ovum becomes a zygote and continues to develop into a mature individual animal. See also #$MaleAnimal, #$SexualReproductionEvent.
    guid: bd58ef77-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$AnimalBLO 

#$Egg-Birds   bird's eggs    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of complex ovum structures produced and emitted (laid) by female birds, in which the ovum is swollen with yolk (a food reserve substance), and around which other stuff (the white and the shell) is secreted before the egg is laid. Bird eggs have usually been fertilized before the shell forms around them; chicken eggs sold commercially for food are usually unfertilized.
    guid: bd5895fe-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$Individual 

#$PlantBLO   plants or plant parts

    A specialization of #$BiologicalLivingObject that includes all plants and parts of plants. #$PlantBLO is thus the union (see #$collectionUnion) of #$Plant and #$PlantPart (qq.v.).
    guid: c0fe06bb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalLivingObject 
    direct generalization of: #$Plant #$PlantPart

#$Seed   seeds

    A specialization of #$PlantBLO. Each instance of #$Seed is a small nodule or granule consisting of a young angiosperm and its protective container during the early (zygotic and embryonic stages) of development. If conditions are right, instances of #$Seed will grow to become adult plants.
    guid: bd58abc2-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$LifeStageType
    direct specialization of: #$PlantPart 

#$FruitFn   fruit fn    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    #$FruitFn is a Cyc function, specifically a #$CollectionDenotingFunction, which is used to denote the various natural kinds of fruit. #$FruitFn takes a single plant collection as its argument and returns the collection of fruits of that type of plant. (#$FruitFn PLANTTYPE) denotes the collection of all fruits from the elements of PLANTTYPE. Examples: (#$FruitFn #$AppleTree) denotes the collection of apples; (#$FruitFn #$CashewTree) denotes the fruit of the cashew tree (note this does NOT correspond with #$Cashew-TheSeed; the red pulpy fruit is used to make cashew wine).
    guid: bd58a976-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$UnaryFunction #$CollectionDenotingFunction #$ReifiableFunction #$Individual

#$Fruit   fruits    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    A specialization of #$PlantPart. Each instance of #$Fruit is a plant structure containing the seeds of an angiosperm. Many instances of #$Fruit have fleshy walls with high concentrations of sugars or fats, and these are often eaten by humans and other animals. Fruits usually develop from the ovary wall, although some fruits include other tissues; e.g., the flesh of apples and of strawberries develops from the receptacle, and the fruits of pineapple and fig develop from a whole inflorescence (group of flowers). See also #$EdibleFruit.
    guid: bd58e5d4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$OrganismPartType #$LifeStageType
    direct specialization of: #$SolidTangibleThing  #$ExternalAnatomicalPart  #$PlantPart  #$Mixture 

#$Seedling   seedlings    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    A subset of #$Plant. #$Seedling is the collection of all growing plants in the stage after germination but before primary development. The seedling stage begins with the rupture of the seed coat and ends at the vague time that the growing plant is 'well established'.
    guid: bd58ff65-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$LifeStageType
    direct specialization of: #$Plant 

#$Bulb-ThePlantPart   bulbs (organism parts) (living things)    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    A collection of parts found in some monocotyledonous plants. Typical elements of #$Bulb-ThePlantPart are found just below the surface of the soil. A plant bulb is NOT a root; rather, it is a very short stem with associated leaf bases that are thick and broad, forming a roundish bulb with many layers of leaf bases.
    guid: bd58f148-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$PlantPart 

#$BotanicalOrgan   botanical organs

    A specialization of #$PlantPart. Each instance of #$BotanicalOrgan is a major morphological and functional feature of an individual plant. Notable specializations of #$BotanicalOrgan include #$Flower-BotanicalPart, #$Leaf, and #$Stem.
    guid: bd58f8f8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$PlantPart 

#$Flower-BotanicalPart   blossoms    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of all reproductive organs of angiosperm plants. May or may not look like conventional 'flowers'.
    guid: bd590693-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ProductType #$OrganismPartType
    direct specialization of: #$ExternalAnatomicalPart  #$BotanicalOrgan 

#$PlantPartType   types of plant part    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    A collection of collections. Each element of #$PlantPartType is a collection of parts of plants, characterized by their structure and function, rather than along taxonomic lines. Since #$PlantPartType is a #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType, any two instances of it (such as #$NutShell and #$Leaf) can be assumed disjoint, unless we know that one is a subset of the other. (For more information, see comment on #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType.)
    guid: c0fdeed5-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType #$SecondOrderCollection
    direct specialization of: #$OrganismPartType