General

 #$BiologicalLivingObject   living things

    The collection of all structures that are composed of one or more living cells (see #$Cell). Biological living objects (or BLO s) might either be instances of #$Organism-Whole (like dogs or pine trees) or components of such whole living organisms (like noses, tails, and pine needles). The healthy leg of a living person is a BLO (as is the person), but an amputated leg is not a BLO. Every instance of #$BiologicalLivingObject is either capable of biological reproduction itself or has components which are capable of biological reproduction (such as the cells in a living arm).
    guid: bd58a6ed-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingStuffType
    direct specialization of: #$OrganicStuff  #$ComplexPhysicalObject  #$NaturalTangibleStuff 
    direct generalization of: #$Cell #$Organism-Whole #$AnimalBLO #$PlantBLO #$Embryo #$OrganismPart

#$Organism-Whole   organisms

    A specialization of #$BiologicalLivingObject. Each instance of #$Organism-Whole is a biological living object (BLO) that is a whole, and not part of some other BLO. Most instances of #$Organism-Whole are capable of existing and reproducing while physically separate from other organisms (with allowances for eating and mating). Abnormal BLOs which are nonetheless considered to be instances of #$Organism-Whole include instances of #$Virus, as well as sterile hybrids and colony organisms, like those in slime molds or the instances of #$PortugueseManOfWar.
    guid: bd58c4d6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ExistingObjectType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalLivingObject 
    direct generalization of: #$Animal #$MulticellularOrganism #$AquaticOrganism #$TerrestrialOrganism #$Plant #$Carnivore #$MoneraKingdom #$Heterotroph #$Autotroph #$Microorganism #$EukaryoticOrganism

#$OrganismClassificationType   types of organism    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    A collection of collections. Each instance of #$OrganismClassificationType is a sub-collection of #$Organism-Whole (q.v.), where membership in that sub-collection is determined by satisfaction of some set of classificatory criteria accepted by some scientific community. The scientific types in #$OrganismClassificationType may or may not correspond to naive categories of organisms, and, in addition, although they are scientific, they might not be officially accepted biological taxons at the standard taxonomic levels. (#$Invertebrate is an example.) Compare #$BiologicalTaxonType. Note that #$OrganismClassificationType is _not_ an instance of #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType, since there are scientific classifications along different dimensions. Many specializations of #$OrganismClassificationType are, however, instances of #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType.
    guid: bd58dfe4-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$SecondOrderCollection
    direct specialization of: #$ConventionalClassificationType  #$ExistingObjectType 
    direct generalization of: #$OrganismTypeByComplexity #$BiologicalTaxon

#$OrganismTypeByHabitat   types of organism classified by habitat

    A collection of collections. Each instance of #$OrganismTypeByHabitat is a collection of organisms (i.e., a specialization of #$Organism-Whole) all of whom share the same sort of habitat. Instances of #$OrganismTypeByHabitat include #$AquaticOrganism and #$TerrestrialOrganism.
    guid: bd58a35d-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType #$SecondOrderCollection
    direct specialization of: #$ExistingObjectType 

#$BiologicalTaxonType   types of biological taxon

    An instance of #$CollectionTypeType and a specialization of #$DisjointCollectionType (q.v.). Each instance of #$BiologicalTaxonType is a specialization of #$BiologicalTaxon (q.v.). Notable instances of #$BiologicalTaxonType include #$BiologicalSpecies, #$BiologicalClass, and #$BiologicalFamily.
    guid: bd588dc6-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$ThirdOrderCollection #$DisjointCollectionType
    direct specialization of: #$DisjointCollectionType  #$SecondOrderCollection 

#$BiologicalTaxon   taxonomic groups

    A collection of collections and a specialization of #$OrganismClassificationType (q.v.). Instances of #$BiologicalTaxon correspond to ranked categories accepted by biologists for the classification of organisms according to their suspected evolutionary relationships. Such categories change as biologists learn more about the organisms involved and determine that existing classifications are more or less useful. They include all levels of taxons. Specializations of #$BiologicalTaxon include #$BiologicalOrder and #$BiologicalSpecies; instances include #$Marsupial and #$Person. See also #$BiologicalTaxonType.
    guid: bd58e2e8-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$SecondOrderCollection #$SiblingDisjointCollectionType
    direct specialization of: #$OrganismClassificationType 
    direct generalization of: #$BiologicalOrder #$BiologicalGenus #$BiologicalSuborder #$BiologicalFamily #$BiologicalSubfamily #$BiologicalSpecies #$BiologicalSubclass #$BiologicalSubspecies #$BiologicalClass #$BiologicalDivision #$BiologicalKingdom #$BiologicalPhylum #$BiologicalSubkingdom #$BiologicalSubphylum

#$BiologicalKingdom   kingdoms (taxonomic groups) (types of temporally enduring object) (types of temporally stuff-like thing)    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    A collection of collections. Each instance of #$BiologicalKingdom is a sub-collection of #$Organism-Whole whose instances all belong to one of the highest, most general taxonomic divisions of organisms. Notable instances of #$BiologicalKingdom include #$Animal, #$Plant, #$ProtistaKingdom, and #$MoneraKingdom.
    guid: bd58989a-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalSubkingdom   biological subkingdoms

    A specialization of #$BiologicalTaxon. Each instance of #$BiologicalSubkingdom is an immediate taxonomic subdivision of some instance of #$BiologicalKingdom (q.v.). Instances of #$BiologicalSubkingdom include #$Protozoan, #$EmbryophyteSubkingdom, and #$AlgaeSubkingdom.
    guid: bd589857-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalPhylum   biological phyla    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of main taxonomic subdivisions of #$BiologicalKingdom (or #$BiologicalSubkingdom if present) for the #$Animal kingdom and for the animal-like organisms within the #$ProtistaKingdom. The other elements of #$BiologicalKingdom have divisions belonging to #$BiologicalDivision instead of Phyla (Phyla is the plural of Phylum).
    guid: bd589813-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalDivision   biological divisions

    A specialization of #$BiologicalTaxon. Each instance of #$BiologicalDivision is a main taxonomic subdivision of some instance of #$BiologicalKingdom (or #$BiologicalSubkingdom) for the members of the #$MoneraKingdom (i.e., prokaryotes), #$Fungus Kingdom, #$Plant Kingdom, and for the plant-like organisms within the #$ProtistaKingdom. In the #$Animal Kingdom, however, the main taxonomic subdivisions are instances of #$BiologicalPhylum (q.v.), rather than #$BiologicalDivision.
    guid: bd58978f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalClass   biological classes    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of taxonomic subdivisions directly under #$BiologicalPhylum (for animals and for the animal-like organisms in the #$ProtistaKingdom), or #$BiologicalDivision (for the plants and for the plant-like organisms within the #$ProtistaKingdom).
    guid: bd58974c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalSubclass   biological subclasses    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions more specific than #$BiologicalClass but more general than #$BiologicalOrder.
    guid: bd58cba7-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalOrder   biological orders    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions (see #$BiologicalTaxon) defined below #$BiologicalClass (or #$BiologicalSubclass) and above #$BiologicalFamily.
    guid: bd58e329-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalFamily   biological families    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions below #$BiologicalOrder (or #$BiologicalSuborder) and above #$BiologicalGenus. Especially important in Botanical classification.
    guid: bd58cb2c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalGenus   biological genera    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The collection of biological taxonomic subdivisions (see #$BiologicalTaxon) created below #$BiologicalFamily and above #$BiologicalSpecies. Sometimes, hybrids are possible between different instances of #$BiologicalSpecies that belong to the same #$BiologicalGenus.
    guid: bd589a9f-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalSpecies   species    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**

    An instance of #$BiologicalTaxonType. Each instance of #$BiologicalSpecies is the most general taxon from which two breeding organisms of appropriate genders can conceivably produce fertile offspring, or, in the case of asexual reproduction, is conventionally defined. Members of different species of animals cannot produce fertile offspring by interbreeding. If there are only two breeds of a given species and one breed becomes extinct, the second breed by virtue of that fact becomes an instance of #$BiologicalSpecies -- since the only organisms instances can breed with to produce fertile offspring are, at that point, members of that collection. An instance of #$BiologicalSpecies has members who all have significant traits in common, and members of each biological species have other members as parents. Exceptions occur when a species is conventionally defined to start since parenthood could conceivably be traced back billions of years, yet new species came into existance. In biological taxonomy, related species are grouped into a particular instance of #$BiologicalGenus. Some genera have only a single species, but they remain different taxons.
    guid: bd58caeb-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

#$BiologicalSubspecies   subspecies

    A specialization of #$BiologicalTaxon whose instances are more restrictive than those of #$BiologicalSpecies. Each instance of #$BiologicalSubspecies is a specialization of some instance of #$BiologicalSpecies. Members of different subspecies of the same species can produce fertile offspring by interbreeding; but such offspring are not members of either of the parental subspecies, although they are members of the common species. All instances of a given biological subspecies have significant traits or collections of traits in common that are not shared by all other members of the subsuming species. A #$BiologicalSubspecies is formed by inbreeding of a restricted group of members of the same species. This can happen naturally through geographic isolation or intentionally through controlled reproduction to create, for example, dog breeds or crop strains.
    guid: c0b6222b-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$BiologicalTaxonType
    direct specialization of: #$BiologicalTaxon 

 

 

    A specialization of #$genls used to relate instances of #$BiologicalTaxon. (#$superTaxons TAXON SUPERTAXON) means that SUPERTAXON is above the more specific TAXON in the biological taxon hierarchy; i.e. the later taxon is more general and inclusive than the former. Every instance of TAXON must therefore also be an instance of SUPERTAXON. For example, (#$superTaxons #$DomesticCat #$FelisGenus) holds. See also #$taxonMembers.
    guid: bd58e36e-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$OpenCycDefinitionalPredicate #$DefinitionalPredicate #$AsymmetricBinaryPredicate #$TransitiveBinaryPredicate
    direct specialization of: #$genls

#$taxonMembers   taxon members    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    The predicate #$taxonMembers is used to relate taxonomic groups to the types of organism that belong to those groups. (#$taxonMembers TAXON ORGTYPE) means that the #$BiologicalTaxon TAXON includes the #$OrganismClassificationType ORGTYPE. ORGTYPE may or may not be a scientific category; nonetheless, all members are classified under the scientific taxon TAXON. If ORGTYPE is also an instance of #$BiologicalTaxon, use the more specific (#$superTaxons ORGTYPE TAXON). Example: (#$taxonMembers #$Mammal #$FemalePerson). Organism types may be related to more than one taxon, so long as they are at diffent levels (e.g. #$BiologicalClass and #$BiologicalOrder).
    guid: bd58e3ee-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$AsymmetricBinaryPredicate

#$memberOfSpecies   member of species    **COMMENT NOT REVIEWED**    **GAFs NOT REVIEWED**

    (#$memberOfSpecies ORG SPECIES) means that the organism ORG is a member of the #$BiologicalSpecies SPECIES.
    guid: bd588e0c-9c29-11b1-9dad-c379636f7270
    direct instance of: #$StrictlyFunctionalSlot
    direct specialization of: #$isa