CycL Translations

>>> This exercise should follow the lesson called CycL Syntax.

Because many of the terms used in this exercise are not included in OpenCyc, we recommend that you print this exercise and try it on paper.

This exercise is divided into three parts:

Part 1: CycL to English translation
Part 2: English to CycL translation
Part 3: Relating Constants

Part 1: CycL to English translation

Express the following CycL assertions in ordinary English (acceptable translations into English may vary).

  1. (and
       (isa NeilArmstrong Astronaut)
       (performedBy FirstLunarLanding NeilArmstrong)
       (eventOccursAt FirstLunarLanding MoonOfEarth))
    
  2. (implies
       (performedBy FirstLunarLanding ?ARMSTRONG)
       (isa ?ARMSTRONG Astronaut))
    
  3. (implies
       (performedBy GettysburgAddress-Speech ? SPEAKER)
       (equals ?SPEAKER AbrahamLincoln))
    
  4. (implies
       (isa ?SOMEONE Person)
       (isa ?SOMEONE Primate))
    
  5. (genls Dog Mammal)
    
  6. (implies
       (isa ?EARTH Planet)
       (thereExists ?SUN (isa ?SUN Star))
    
  7. (implies
       (and
          (father ?CHILD ?PARENT)
          (siblings ?PARENT ?SIB)
          (isa ?SIB FemalePerson))
       (aunts ?CHILD ?SIB))
    
  8. (implies
       (orbits ?X ?Y)
       (thereExists ?PATH
          (thereExists ?ORBITING-MOVEMENT
             (and
                (isa ?PATH OrbitalPath)
                (surrounds-Ringlike ?PATH ?Y)
                (traverses-Complete ?ORBITING-MOVEMENT ?PATH)
                (objectMoving ?ORBITING-MOVEMENT ?X)))))
    
  9. (implies
       (and
          (isa ?EXP ExperiencingHunger)
          (doneBy ?EXP ?ANI)
          (isa ?ANI Animal))
       (desires ?ANI
             (thereExists ?EAT
                (and
                   (isa ?EAT EatingEvent)
                   (performedBy ?EAT ?ANI)))))
    

 

 

Part 2: English to CycL translation

Using the suggested CycL vocabulary, translate the following English sentences into well-formed CycL assertions.

Logical Terms
Predicates
Attributes

#$thereExists

#$feelsEmotion #$feelsTowardsEvent

#$High

#$thereExistAtLeast

#$holdsIn #$genls #$Medium

#$thereExistAtMost

#$objectActedOn #$hasAttributes #$Low

#$forAll

#$eventOccursAt #$isa  

#$and

#$anatomicalParts #$performedBy  

#$implies

#$hasPets #$likesRoleInActivity  

#$not

#$employees #$feelsTowardEvent  
    #$temperament  
Individuals
Collections
Functions

#$Rover

#$Enjoyment #$Primate #$DeadFn

#$Blake

#$Chewing #$ShapeType  

#$Cycorp

#$Circle #$Swimming-Generic  
  #$Dog #$Tail  
  #$DomesticPet #$TwoDimensionalShape  
  #$Lake #$Bone-BodyPart  
  #$Person #$Viciousness  
       
       
    1. Rover is Blake's pet.

 

 

    1. Rover is the pet of a Cycorp employee.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. Blake has at least one pet.

 

 

    1. Everyone who works at Cycorp has at least one pet.

 

 

 

 

 

    1. Every pet of a Cycorp employee has at most one tail.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. Rover is swimming in a lake. (Do this without naming the swimming event in question.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. Rover is chewing on a bone.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. Dogs really like to chew on bones.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    1. Circles are shapes.

 

  1. All people are primates.

 

 

 

11. All dogs are highly vicious.
 

 

Part 3: Relating constants

 

Vocabulary:

(#$isa X Y)

X is an instance of Y

(#$genls X Y)

Every instance of X is an instance of Y

(#$performedBy X Y)

X is/was performed by Y

(#$mainColorOfObject X Y)

The main color of X is Y

#$Rover

the dog depicted in the image above

#$RoverSwimmingInTheLake

the event depicted in the image above

#$BeigeColor

an individual attribute, and #$Rover's color

#$Dog

the collection of all dogs

#$Mammal

the collection of all mammals

#$Color

the collection of color attributes

#$PhysicalAttribute

a collection of attributes

Using the vocabulary provided above, write a CycL sentence expressing the relationship, if any, between the following pairs of constants:

 

    1. #$Rover and #$Dog

 

    1. #$Rover and #$Mammal

 

 

    1. #$RoverSwimmingInTheLake and #$Rover

 

 

    1. #$Rover and #$BeigeColor

 

 

    1. #$BeigeColor and #$Color

 

 

  1. #$BeigeColor and #$PhysicalAttribute