Suppose you know that
(J) Jill bakes a cake for Joe’s birthday in her kitchen using her new convection oven.
Then, it seems, you would thereby know each of the following facts:
- Jill bakes a cake in her kitchen.
- Jill bakes a cake with her new convection oven.
- Jill bakes a cake for Joe’s birthday.
- Jill bakes a cake.
So far, there is no surprise. But there are a couple of things worth noticing here:
- First, although (J) entails each of the 4 statements above, the conjunction of 1. through 4. (or any other partial combination of conjunctions of them) does not entail (J). For it is possible that Jill baked a cake for her own enjoyment in her kitchen, and that Jill baked another cake for Joe’s birthday in the pastry shop where she works, and Jill baked yet another cake for Sue’s birthday in her oven, and so forth. If all this were the case then each of 1. through 4. would be true, but (J) would not.What is missing from the conjunction ‘1 and 2 and 3 and 4’? What else would have to be the case for (J) to be entailed? The natural response is: it would have to be the case that 1, 2, 3 and 4 are all true because of the same occurrence of baking — rather than because of the multiple, distinct baking “episodes” described in the counterexample.
- Second, if we represent (J) in a formal language (CycL, or first order logic) we should be able to capture the correct entailment relation. But the fact that (J) entails each of the 4 shorter statements seems difficult to explain if we interpret bakes in (J) as a predicate, which is traditionally how verb phrases are formalized in these languages. In (J), we would have to represent bakes as a 5-place predicate relating, resp., Jill (1), the cake (2), Joe’s birthday (3), her kitchen (4) and the oven (5). But in the sentence Jill bakes a cake in her kitchen the predicate has only 3 places. Furthermore, the relation expressed by the predicate in the latter sentence — i.e., the relation between an agent, the thing baked, and the place in which baking takes place — is not the relation expressed by the predicate in Jill bakes a cake with her new convection oven, which is between an agent, the thing baked and the device used in the baking.
Both of these points were raised by the philosopher Donald Davidson in a famous paper called ‘The logical form of action sentences’, in which he sought to clarify the proper way to interpret, i.e., to represent formally, sentences such as (J). Davidson argued that such sentences should be interpreted as implicitly referring to a particular event, characterized by the verb used. According to the Davidsonian interpretation, therefore, the correct meaning of (J) would be expressed more explicitly by a statement like
(J*) There is a particular baking event in which Jill baked a cake for Joe’s birthday in her kitchen using her convection oven,
Notice that if this is in fact the meaning of (J), then not only does (J) entail the conjunction of 1 through 4 as stated above, but it also entails that there is one and the same baking to which 1 through 4 apply.
We call (J*) the Davidsonian representation of (J) (more precisely, of the logical form of (J)). The characteristic of Davidsonian representation is that we regard action sentences as implicit existential assertions about event particulars.
As of this writing (August 2001), we represent actions and events in CycL by using Davidsonian representations. In order to formalize something like (J*) we analyze it as including 2 basic components:
- the assertion that there exists a particular event of a given type
- the roles that other individual things play in that event
- and of course, the fillers of those roles.
For instance, in the event supposedly described by (J) Jill fills an agentive role — she causally initiates and controls the baking — while the cake is the object resulting from the baking, and fills an ”outputs” role. The overall result of this sort of analysis in the given example would be, in ”semi-formal” terms:
There exists an X such that
- X is a baking event
- the active agent of X is Jill
- the object produced in X is a cake
- the purpose of X is Joe’s birthday
- the place where X occurs is Jill’s kitchen
- the device used in X is Jill’s convection oven.
In CycL, the type of a particular event is represented by a particular collection. The collection Event includes all events; therefore a certain type of event will be a specialization of Event — in this particular example, we would use #$BakingFood.
Roles are expressed in CycL by instances of BinaryRolePredicate, and in particular by instances of ActorSlot, a spec of BinaryRolePredicate. Thus a partial representation of the occurrence of Jill’s baking in Cyc might look like this:
(thereExists ?EVENT (and (isa ?EVENT BakingFood) (performedBy ?EVENT Jill) (outputsCreated ?EVENT Cake023 (eventOccursAt ?EVENT Kitchen023)))
Davidsonian representations are indefinitely extensible, in that one can always add a clause to a conjunction of this form. If the baking, e.g., had actually been performed by Jill and David jointly, you would simply extend the conjunction with the clause (performedBy ?EVENT David).
Clearly a natural question in a Davidsonian representation framework is: exactly what sort of things are events? More precisely, what is characteristic of Davidsonian representation is that it posits the existence of event particulars. We think of them as, primarily, specific occurrences of a particular type of occurrence.
To bring out the implicit contrast between event particulars and event types, consider an example. In ordinary discourse, we might have an exchange such as the following:
You: I got a speeding ticket yesterday on I-35.
I: The same thing happened to me a month ago.
In Davidsonian style, your utterance would be interpreted as referring (implicitly) to a certain ticketing-someone which occurred yesterday, at your expense, on that route. But when I utter the words ‘the same thing’ clearly I’m not referring to that: I couldn’t be saying that the same occurrence of ticketing happened to me, since I’m placing that occurrence at a completely different time. What I’m actually saying must be something like: the same type of thing happened to me.
So in this discourse, my words are not about the event particular you are describing, but about the event type which that particular occurrence instantiates. As this example suggests, we think of an event particular as something that has a specific location in space-time: something that occurs at or over the course of a particular time (or rather time interval), and at a particular place or set of places.
An event in this sense (an event particular, that is) need not be a fully connected whole, either spatially or temporally (cf. #$temporallyContinuous: my writing this particular letter, e.g., could take place in several locations (some at my desk, some on a bus, and so on), and at discontinous chunks of time.
The Event hierarchy is quite rich in the Cyc KB. Among the salient types of events are:
- Actions, cf. #$Action: events that are done by an agent (not necessarily an intelligent agent); the spec #$PurposefulAction covers in which the agentive role is filled by intentional agents.
- Physical events, in which physical objects are involved; these are a spec of #$Event-Localized, the collection of occurrences that take place within specified space locations. Related to this (though not included) are the families #$CreationOrDestructionEvent and #$IntrinsicStateChangeEvent: the former includes types of events in which something fills the roles #$inputs or #$outputs, the latter those in which some change in the state of an object is effected.
- Events in which something is transferred, cf. #$GeneralizedTransfer: these include, among others, physical transfers, such as #$MovementEvent, and transfers of information, for which cf. #$InformationTransferEvent.
Temporal parts of events — for which cf. the relation #$subEvents — are also events. Note that a subevent need not be a proper temporal part of the event itself: in a orchestral performance, e.g., the first violinist’s actions are a subevent of the whole performance, but begin and end at the same times as the performance itself.
Since any temporal part of an event (up to granularity considerations: i.e., any part longer than a certain time granule) is itself an event, #$Event is an instance of #$TemporalStuffType. However, many specs of the collection #$Event, i.e. many types of events, are not temporally stuff-like. For instance, baking a cake is not temporally stuff-like, since many temporal segments of a cake-baking event cannot be described as events in which a cake is baked. For a more fine-grained classification along these lines, compare #$AccomplishmentType and #$CumulativeEventType.
Events in Cyc are a kind of situations: more precisely, the collection #$Event is a spec of the collection #$Situation-Temporal. Generally, the distinction between situations and events is that the latter sort of occurrences involve change, while situations can simply be conceived as states of affairs. Thus my writing this paragraph corresponds to (or coincides with, or brings about) a modification in the state of things, in that after it there exists a paragraph in (let’s hope) English which didn’t exist before my writing.
On the other hand, my sitting in a certain room on a certain chair for a number of hours while I write this document does not purport of change: it’s a condition or state of things that endures unchanged through time. That is a situation — actually an instance of #$Situation-Temporal since it has a specified duration or existence through time. #$Situation, which is more general, also includes the collection #$StaticSituation which is disjoint from #$Event, and certain abstract types of situations: for instance, the collections #$List and #$RelationalStructure, both specs of #$MathematicalObject, are specs of #$Situation, although not of #$Situation-Temporal.
A cautionary note: at least by design, situations and events are ontologically very similar in Cyc. Both are represented in the Davidsonian framework: we posit the existence of events and situations as spatio-temporal particulars. However, often a situation (especially ”static” ones) is more naturally described not by specifying roles and fillers like in the Davidsonian schema, but by indicating what holds true in the situation (usually with an #$holdsIn clause). While this is relatively common practice at the moment, I believe that the resulting notion of situation is not the same as the Davidsonian one. (Some of these issues are the object of ”experimental” OE work.)
#$ActorSlot is a collection of binary predicates, each instance of which is a specialization of the predicate #$actors. Here, and in common Cyclish parlance, instances of this collection are referred to just as ‘actor slots’. Actor slots are by far the most common way to represent roles in Davidsonian descriptions of events and action; each of these predicates associates a role with the individual object that fills that role in the given event.
Every instance of actor slots satisfies these conditions:
- it is a binary predicate
- it has #$actors as a #$genlPreds
- the first argument is an instance of #$Event
- the second argument is an instance of #$SomethingExisting
The 3rd and 4th conditions actually are logical consequences of the 2nd.
What exactly counts as an ”actor” in Cyc? Basically any existing object or individual that plays a relevant causal role in a particular event. An individual need not have an active or agentive role to be an actor: see, e.g., #$patient-Generic or #$objectActedOn. Furthermore, something can fill an actor slot with respect to a particular event without being directly involved in the event: for instance, you may fill the #$maleficiary role of a #$Fraud event though being completely unaware of what is going on (note: the ‘maleficiary’ in Cyc is the actor harmed, not the actor causing harm).
Notice that #$actors is a specialization of #$temporallyIntersects: it is a necessary condition for a thing A to be an actor in an event E that A’s duration (the time throughout which A exists) and E’s duration (the time throughout which A occurs) have some common segment — they must have some time interval in common. But having shared temporal extent is not a sufficient condition for being an actor in our sense.
A major distinction within the #$ActorSlot hierarchy is that between #$preActors and #$postActors: predicates relating an event to an actor that pre-exists the event itself are specializations of #$preActors. Conversely, predicates corresponding to roles filled by actors that in normal condition continue to exist after the event are specializations of #$postActors.
The representation of events and action is inextricably linked to the representation of time. In the most general ontological terms, events correspond to the occurrence of change. We noted that Davidsonian events and situations are inherently temporal objects: they occur at times, and they generally have duration (presumably an event could be instantaneous, i.e., have zero duration, but it would still occur at a time point).
Moreover, event and action types are typically used in Cyc as the denotation of verbs and verb phrases, and those expressions have tense, which is used to express temporal relations. In the Davidsonian representation framework, all this is done by explicitly describing the temporal properties and relation of events. Suppose, e.g., that #$Bake001 is the event in which Jill bakes Joe’s birthday cake; here are a few things we might assert about the temporal properties of this event in the style of Davidsonian representation:
- Bake001 occurs on Feb. 20:(dateOfEvent Bake001 Feb20)
which implies that this particular baking event is entirely subsumed (#$temporallySubsumes) by the day of Feb. 20.
- Bake001 occurs right before Joe’s birthday party:(thereExists ?PAR (and (isa ?PAR BirthdayParty) (eventHonors ?PAR Joe) (contiguousAfter ?PAR Bake001)))
- This specifies that the party begins right after the end of the baking. But this might be too strict: we may want to state just that the party begins sometime after the baking, without being specific about when the earlier one ends and the other begins. In this case we would use(startsAfterStartingOf ?PAR Bake001)
in place of the last clause in the previous formula.
- Jill began the baking by mixing various ingredients: in terms of our representation, this amounts to saying that the overall baking event temporally included an initial mixing subevent:(thereExists ?MIX (and (isa ?MIX Mixing) (firstSubEvents Bake001 ?MIX)))
The predicates used in these examples are all instances of #$TemporalRelation: in particular, predicates in the spec #$ComplexTemporalRelation can be used to relate temporal things that, like Davidsonian particulars, have temporal extent.
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Sometimes a Cyclist will try to pack too much information into a single predicate, resulting in the creation of a relation with unnecessarily high arity. It should be understood, however, that there is nothing intrinsically wrong with high-arity predicates — a CycL predicate of, say, arity 5, is a welcome addition to the KB under all the same conditions that a predicate of arity 2 is welcome (see the Chapter entitled “The Syntax of CycL”). One important general principle to follow when designing any predicate — high arity or low — is that the arity one gives it is the arity that the predicate needs. What follows are some principles to help the Cyclist determine whether a given higher arity predicate really does need the arity that has been assigned to it. In some cases, this will mean that the predicate simply needs to have its arity reduced; in others, this will mean that the predicate is just poorly motivated.
Examples have been provided to help make this distinction clearer. For purposes of this discussion, a “higher arity” predicate is any predicate with an arity of at least 3.
A Cyclist should always take special care to consider how the arity of a proposed predicate will affect its re-usability. Take for instance the following ternary predicate, actually created by a test cyclist (a “SME”) during an experiment. Let’s call this predicate “#$occurInSequence”:
(occurInSequence EventType001 EventType002 EventType003)
This says that events of type #$EventType001 always precede events of type #$EventType002, which always precede events of type #$EventType003. Clearly, such a predicate is useful for relating exactly three types of events. However, it is absolutely useless for expressing the temporal relations between two types of events. Moreover, in order to express temporal relations between, say, four types of events, it must be used in such a way so as to express some information redundantly, e.g.,
(and (occurInSequence EventType001 EventType002 EventType003) (occurInSequence EventType002 EventType003 EventType004))
says that events of type #$EventType001 always precede events of type #$EventType002, which always happen before events of type #$EventType003, which follow events of type #$EventType002, but precede events of type #$EventType004. One could correct this by making #$occurInSequence a variable arity predicate, but then one would need to explicitly assert the temporal relationship between, e.g., #$EventType001 and <EventTypeN> anytime one wanted to assert the relationship between <EventTypeN> and any other type of event. The correct solution is to simply use a binary predicate, by which we can explicitly represent the temporal relationship between any two types of events, and infer relationships where they are not explicitly stated.
New Cyclists sometimes feel as though they should be as terse as possible when composing CycL assertions, and this feeling sometimes motivates the Cyclist to create predicates that artificially combine two or more (already existing or possible) predicates. For example, one might create a predicate #$doneByAtRate,
(doneByAtRate <EVENT> <ACTOR> <RATE>)
to say that an event was done by someone or something at a certain rate. But a sentence of this form is clearly just a conjunction:
(and (doneBy <EVENT> <ACTOR>) (eventRate <EVENT> <RATE>))
Thus doneByAtRate is utterly redundant with existing vocabulary — it does not contribute anything over and above the contributions made by #$doneBy and #$eventRate — and thus has no place in the KB. By “utterly redundant” I mean that it makes no contribution over and above the contributions that #$doneBy and #$rateOfEvent make. Plenty of predicates in the KB are redundant —
(genls :ARG1 :ARG2)
is redundant with
(relationAllInstance isa :ARG1 :ARG2)
— but most of those are useful in their own right (e.g., #$genls allows for rapid inheritance reasoning), and so are not considered “utterly redundant”.
It is important to realize that even if we did not already have #$doneBy and #$eventRate, #$doneByAtRate would still be a bad predicate. If a predicate is a mere conjunction of two or more (good) predicates — even of two or more predicates that do not yet exist — it should be replaced by those predicates.
Oftentimes, a predicate of unnecessarily high arity results from a Cyclist’s desire to create vocabulary that will enable him or her to assert a GAF instead of a rule. Let’s say that the creator of #$doneByAtRate wants to be able to say that every event of a certain type, when done by any instance of a given type, has a certain rate. Thus he creates a new predicate, #$rateOfTypeDoneByType, which allows him to assert the GAF,
(rateOfTypeDoneByType BuildingADam Beaver (LowAmountFn EventRate))
in lieu of the following rule:
(implies (and (isa ?X Beaver) (isa ?Y BuildingADam) (doneBy ?Y ?X)) (eventRate ?Y (LowAmountFn EventRate))
Given that #$rateOfTypeDoneByType allows us to construct GAFs where rules are otherwise needed, AND given that this predicate it is not merely a conjunction of other predicates (in the way that #$doneByAtRate was), what’s wrong with #$rateOfTypeDoneByType? The problem is that this predicate is simply a type-level “macro” for certain quantified assertions expressible with #$doneByAtRate, where #$doneByAtRate is not a well-motivated predicate. Some “type-level” predicates are useful and interesting in their own right, in that they are not definable in terms of an “individual-level” predicate plus quantification (see, for example #$needsType). Other “type-level” predicates — #$subEventTypes and #$partTypes, for example — are simply macros: They allow us to make assertions in GAF form that otherwise we would make using a particular “individual-level” predicate and quantifiers. Thus
(subEventTypes TYPE1 TYPE2)
(relationAllExists subEvents TYPE1 TYPE2)
and nothing more. Predicates such as #$subEventTypes are only as ontologically motivated as the “individual-level” predicates from which they derive their meaning. So if, for example, #$subEvents had turned out to be a bad predicate, #$subEventTypes would be a bad predicate, too. In the current example, #$rateOfTypeDoneByType bears the same sort of relationship to #$doneByAtRate that #$subEventTypes bears to #$subEvents: Since #$doneByAtRate is a bad predicate, so is #$rateOfTypeDoneByType.
However, if we hadn’t already introduced and discussed #$doneByAtRate, the problem with #$rateOfTypeDoneByType would not be so easy to see. So, in order to catch this sort of problem, one should, as a general rule of thumb, consider a possible expansion for one’s higher arity predicates. If one can expand the predicate into existing vocabulary, one should then ask if the predicates used in the expansion (other than those used to establish the quantification implicit in the predicate’s meaning, such as #$isa, #$genls, or #$thereExists) could be replaced with a new predicate — of the same arity as the predicate in question — that combines them. If so, then the predicate in question is probably not well motivated.
Keeping with the current example, the expansion for #$rateOfTypeDoneByType would be,
(implies (and (isa ?X :ARG1) (isa ?Y :ARG2) (doneBy ?Y ?X)) (rateOfEvent ?Y :ARG3))
The predicates #$doneBy and #$rateOfEvent can be combined thusly:
(implies (and (isa ?X :ARG1) (isa ?Y :ARG2)) (<combinedPred> ?Y ?X :ARG3))
and so #$rateOfTypeDoneByType would appear to be mere shortcut for certain quantified expressions involving an unmotivated, conjunctive predicate.
Sometimes, it is tempting to create a higher arity predicate because doing so will make parsing easier. For example, a given text might contain the sentence, “when beavers build dams, they do it slowly.” If one were doing OE work as part of a project that requires that this sentence be parsed, one might be tempted to create a single predicate that, through the use of parsing templates, could serve as the arg0 for the CycL representation of this sentence. That is, one might be tempted to create something like #$rateOfTypeDoneByType, and give it the following template:
“When/Whenever <Noun => :ARG1> <Verb => :ARG2>, they do it/so <Adverb => :ARG3>.”
Expedient though this might be, #$rateOfTypeDoneByType, is still a poorly motivated predicate from an OE perspective. For more information, see the section on “How OE differs from NL”.
Consider the following assertion:
(typesDifferInAttribute MaleAnimal FemaleAnimal GenderOfLivingThing hasGender)
This says that males differ from females in that the gender of each male is different from the gender of any female (and vice versa). This predicate is Quaternary, but it does not need to be. At first glance, each argument appears to be well-motivated: the arg1 and arg2 are needed to identify the collections whose instances differ from one another; the arg3 gives the type of attribute in which instances of arg1 differ from instances of arg2; and the arg4 gives the relevant predicate that relates instances of arg1 and arg2 to the relevant instance of the arg3. Thus the expansion for this predicate might be something like,
(implies (and (isa ?X :ARG1) (isa ?Y :ARG2)) (thereExists ?ATT1 (thereExists ?ATT2 (and (isa ?ATT1 :ARG3) (isa ?ATT2 :ARG3) (:ARG4 ?X ?ATT1) (:ARG4 ?Y ?ATT2) (different ?ATT1 ?ATT2)))))
Thus all of the arguments seem to be needed in order to capture the intended meaning of #$typesDifferInAttribute. However, as the name of the predicate suggests, the #$arg3Isa of #$typesDifferInAttribute is #$AttributeType. And, given the intended meaning of #$typesDifferInAttribute, the arg4 must be a predicate that is capable of relating instances of the arg1 and the arg2 to any instance of the arg3. In other words, the arg4 must be a predicate capable for relating things to their attributes. And that means the arg4 must be a predicate P such that
(genlPreds P hasAttributes)
From this it follows that if
(typesDifferInAttribute ARG1 ARG2 ARG3 ARG4)
is true, for any ARG1, ARG2, ARG3, and ARG4, then, necessarily,
(typesDifferInAttribute ARG1 ARG2 ARG3 #$hasAttributes)
is also true. In effect, the arg3 constraint on #$typesDifferInAttribute constrains the arg4 to be some specialization of #$hasAttributes. Now, let us suppose we are not concerned with which specialization of #$hasAttributes is the right one. In that case, it becomes obvious that we can drop the ARG4 from #$typesDifferInAttribute, thus changing it from a quaternary predicate to a ternary predicate. All that’s needed is an adjustment to its expansion:
(implies (and (isa ?X :ARG1) (isa ?Y :ARG2)) (thereExists ?ATT1 (thereExists ?ATT2 (and (isa ?ATT1 :ARG3) (isa ?ATT2 :ARG3) (hasAttributes ?X ?ATT1) (hasAttributes ?Y ?ATT2) (different ?ATT1 ?ATT2)))))
However, what if we are interested in knowing which spec pred of #$hasAttributes is the right one? By dropping the ARG4 from #$typesDifferInAttribute, haven’t we robbed Cyc of its ability to infer
(different ?X ?Y)
(hasGender Male001 ?X)
(hasGender Female001 ?Y)
As it so happens, the answer is, “No.” If
(hasGender Male001 ?X)
(hasGender Female001 ?Y)
were, in fact, consistent with
(not (different ?X ?Y))
in CycL, that would mean that
(hasAttributes Male001 ?X) (hasAttributes Female001 ?Y)
(not (different ?X ?Y))
would also be consistent. But, because we have asserted
(typesDifferInAttribute MaleAnimal FemaleAnimal GenderOfLivingThing)
and because in our example ?X and ?Y are both constrained by the definition of #$hasGender to be instances of #$GenderOfLivingThing, these three sentences are provably inconsistent. Thus
(hasGender Male001 ?X) (hasGender Female001 ?Y)
(not (different ?X ?Y))
are likewise inconsistent in CycL — i.e., Cyc knows that if
(hasGender Male001 ?X)
(hasGender Female001 ?Y)
(different ?X ?Y)
So it turns out that we don’t lose anything by reducing the arity of #$typesDifferInAttribute. Thus the arity should be reduced.
In order to assist Cyc in gathering knowledge about the world, a suite of predicates pertaining to ke-facilitation are currently in development. These predicates are meta-relations designed to work in concert with a tool to furnish suggestions (or in some cases, mandates) to a user concerning what he or she is creating. Their utility consists largely in the fact that the assertions involving them collectively encode a partial declarative representation of how to do KE. Having such a representation is useful not only for guiding naive users and clients in doing elementary KE, but also for aiding Cyc in reasoning about its own knowledge acquisition processes.
KE facilitation depends upon four basic predicates:
As the names suggest, these predicates are used to encode different ‘strengths’ of suggestion, running all the way from things that are considered mandatory to things that are suggested only because they are true of something’s siblings or ‘neighbors’. Each of the predicates is binary, taking a #$Thing and an #$ELSentenceAssertible as its arguments. Where FACPRED is one of these four predicates, the meaning of (FACPRED TERM SENTENCE) is that SENTENCE is something which Cyc should know to be true of TERM, with the strength of the ‘should’ being expressed by FACPRED itself: required, strong, weak, or neighbor. It is therefore presupposed that SENTENCE references TERM in some way, i.e., that (#$assertedTermSentences TERM SENTENCE).
The four previously mentioned predicates are seldom used to make local GAF assertions on individual terms: there is little point in the creator of a term asserting that something that is assertible in CycL should be known to be true about a term when s/he can easily assert this very thing! Rather, the principle utility of ke facilitation predicates lies in their ability to be used in rules that conclude suggestions for entities satisfying the conditions stated in the antecedent of the rule.
Here are a few examples of such rules:
(implies (isa ?TERM Relation) (keRequirement ?TERM (thereExists ?COL (and (isa ?COL RelationshipTypeByArity) (isa ?TERM ?COL)))))
If TERM is an instance of #$Relation, then Cyc is required to know of a #$RelationshipTypeByArity that TERM is an instance of (i.e., there needs to be an arity asserted for every CycL relation).
(implies (genls ?CHANGE_TYPE IntrinsicStateChangeEvent) (keStrongSuggestion ?CHANGE_TYPE (thereExists ?OBJECT_TYPE (relationAllExists objectOfStateChange ?CHANGE_TYPE ?OBJECT_TYPE))))
If CHANGE-TYPE is a kind of #$IntrinsicStateChangeEvent, it is strongly suggested that Cyc know of a kind of #$SomethingExisting such that every instance of CHANGE-TYPE has an object of this kind as the #$objectOfStateChange.
(implies (genls ?EVENT-TYPE CreationEvent) (keWeakSuggestion ?EVENT-TYPE (thereExists ?ATT (and (isa ?ATT OutputEfficiency) (relationAllInstance hasAttributes ?EVENT-TYPE ?ATT)))))
If EVENT-TYPE is a kind of #$CreationEvent it is weakly suggested that Cyc know about an #$OutputEfficiency such that all instances of EVENT-TYPE are asserted to have this efficiency.
Rules like these are used in turn by two sorts of applications. The first type summarizes suggested assertions for a newly-created term; the second walks over a pre-specified set of terms in search of terms for which unsatisfied suggestions exist. The procedure in both cases is to run the equivalent of a set of undercover, 1 backchain Asks on a given term, asking for all keRequirements, all keStrongSuggestions and all keWeakSuggestions, and then checking to see if these suggestions are already known by Cyc. Those suggestions which are not provable in the knowledge base are then presented to the user in the form of open formulae for the user to fill in. Supposing for the sake of example that a user had defined a new relation [RELN] but had not yet specified a RelationshipTypeByArity for it, the user would be asked to specify an [ARITY-TYPE] such that
(and (isa [ARITY-TYPE] RelationshipTypeByArity) (isa [RELN] [ARITY-TYPE])))))
was true. Obviously, if this information was already known, the suggestion would not be presented.
The planned implementation of the predicate keNeighborSuggestion is slightly different from that of the others. Here the idea is to look at the assertions on a terms ‘neighbors’ in the Cyc KB, where ‘neighbor’ is defined using some sort of weak definition of siblinghood that might conceivably vary with context: it might, in some cases, simply be terms that the term in question could be concluded to be #$similarTo. In cases where SIBLING-TERM has been identified as a ‘neighbor’ of TERM, using whatever criterion, and it is known that (assertedTermSentences SIBLING-TERM ASSERTION), and (SubstituteFormulaFn TERM SIBLING-TERM ASSERTION) is not known to be true, i.e. Cyc believes (unknownSentence (SubstituteFormulaFn TERM SIBLING-TERM ASSERTION)), then (SubstituteFormulaFn TERM SIBLING-TERM ASSERTION) may be offered to the user as a keNeighborSuggestion.
There are several cases where numerous ke facilitation rules can be subsumed under more economical ‘rule macro predicates’. Four of the most common patterns seen among ke facilitation rules are:
- (implies (isa ?TERM [COL]) (keStrongSuggestion (thereExists ?INST [BIN-PRED] ?TERM ?INST)))
- (implies (isa ?TERM [COL]) (keStrongSuggestion (thereExists ?INST [BIN-PRED] ?INST ?TERM)))
- (implies (genls ?TERM [COL]) (keStrongSuggestion (thereExists ?INST [BIN-PRED] ?TERM ?INST)))
- (implies (genls ?TERM [COL]) (keStrongSuggestion (thereExists ?INST [BIN-PRED] ?INST ?TERM)))
1, 2, 3, and 4 are implemented, respectively, by the predicates keStrongSuggestionPreds, keStrongSuggestionInverse, keGenlsStrongSuggestionPreds, and keGenlsStrongSuggestionInverse. Analogous forms for the weak suggestions are implemented by keWeakSuggestionPreds, keWeakSuggestionInverse, keGenlsWeakSuggestionPreds, and keGenlsWeakSuggestionInverse.
In addition to these macros, there are several others defined in the present system. One can see the entire inventory by doing a search on the instances of KEFacilitationPredicate, the PredicateCategory which subsumes all of the ke facilitation relations. As using these predicates saves greatly on the expense of searching for ke facilitation suggestions, Cyclists authoring ke facilitation assertions are encouraged to use them whenever possible.
There are three main limitations on the current implementation of ke facilitation assertions in the Knowledge Base.
The first has to do with the fundamental logical limitations of unknownSentence. Because CycL is a semi-decideable language, it is not possible, in the limit and for an arbitrarily chosen assertible sentence, that this sentence is not provable in a selected context of the KB. Thus, it is impossible to guarantee with ironclad certainty that a suggestion that is proferred to the user is not already satisfied by the current state of the KB. However, for the vast majority of cases that we care about, search with delimited parameters (indeed, search by straight look-up) is believed sufficient. Thus, this is not at present regarded as one of the more serious limitations attaching to this methodology.
The second limitation is that it is impossible to impose a fundamental ordering on the sequence in which suggestions are offered, for the same reason that heuristic search methodology renders it impossible to guarantee that the answers to a query will return in a pre-specified order. This is a fundamental limitation and a spur to further work, as there are many cases for which it would be desirable to be able to order suggestion prompts.
The third limitation is that suggestion strength is probably not a monolithic concept, but is instead sensitive to such details as context and user interest. The hope (as of August of 2001) is that more sophisticated user modeling and context handling techniques will enable us to vary suggestion strengths from discourse context to discourse context as appropriate.
The KE facilitation vocabulary represents an early step on the road toward providing a declarative superstructure to support Cyc in reasoning about the contents of its own knowledge base, and ultimately, in making adjustments thereto on the basis of such reason. The ke facilitation vocabulary is comparatively limited in this respect, supporting only changes in knowledge acquisition behavior on the basis of new knowledge acquired, and fairly delimited changes at that. More dramatic metareasoning support will probably need to be implemented in the future, if Cyc is ever to realize the vision of becoming a self-extensive, self-modifying system that can gracefully adjust its semantics to cope with a continuously evolving world. Only thus will Cyc be able to cope with criticisms that Cyc doesn’t really represent artificial intelligence.
However, this raises a fundamental question: since metavocabulary is as subject to revision as anything else in the Cyc system, does the proposal to automate or partially automate knowledge acquisition and KR update by declarative means implicate us, ultimately, in a regress? Will we find ourselves at some point in the future introducing second-order metavocabulary to shape modifications in second-order reasoning in the same way we are now proposing to do with metavocabulary and first-order reasoning. If this happens, it is almost certainly a sign that the program is on the wrong track.
There is reason to hope, however, in that we can already see cases of meta-assertions that are effectively self-referential; e.g.,
(implies (isa ?TERM Relation) (keRequirement ?TERM (thereExists ?COL (and (isa ?COL RelationshipTypeByArity) (isa ?TERM ?COL)))))
applies to keRequirement itself, and to any other ke facilitation relation that anybody cares to create. Such potential for self-referentiality holds out the hope that we can have a potential for arbitrarily nested ‘meta-deliberation’ embodied in a finite set of assertions. It also holds out the prospect for a certain measure of constrained chaotic feedback within the system: but then, it has long been surmised that chaos is a part of natural intelligence.
Any ontologist engaged in creating a new collection should ask him/herself if there are any suggestions that he or she would offer a user creating either an instance of spec of this collection, either simpliciter or with further qualifications. If such suggestions exist, the ke facilitation vocabulary should be used to encode them.
Likewise, any ontologist creating a new relation should (obviously) have some idea in mind of the circumstances in which this relation ought to be applied. To the extent that a description of these circumstances can be encoded using the ke facilitation vocabulary, this should be done.
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