Answers to Exercise: CycL Translations

Answers appear in bold beneath each question.

This exercise is divided into three parts: Part 1: CycL to English translation
Part 2: English to CycL translation
Part 3: Relating Constants

Part 1: CycL to English translation

Express the following CycL assertions in ordinary English.

    1. (and
         (isa NeilArmstrong Astronaut)
         (performedBy FirstLunarLanding NeilArmstrong)
         (eventOccursAt FirstLunarLanding MoonOfEarth))
      

      "The astronaut, Neil Armstrong, performed the first landing on the moon."



    1. (implies
         (performedBy FirstLunarLanding ?ARMSTRONG)
         (isa ?ARMSTRONG Astronaut))
      

      "Whoever performed the first lunar landing was an astronaut."



    1. (implies
         (performedBy GettysburgAddress-Speech ? SPEAKER)
         (equals ?SPEAKER AbrahamLincoln))
      

      "Whoever performed the Gettysburg Address was Abraham Lincoln."
      *Note that this assertion could be more elegantly expressed in CycL as:
      (performedBy GettysburgAddress-Speech AbrahamLincoln)
      which says, "Abraham Lincoln performed the Gettysburg Address."



    1. (implies
         (isa ?SOMEONE Person)
         (isa ?SOMEONE Primate))
      

      "All people are primates."
      *Note that this could be more elegantly expressed in CycL as:
      (#$genls #$Person #$Primate).



    1. (genls Dog Mammal)
      

      "All dogs are mammals."



    1. (implies
         (isa ?EARTH Planet)
         (thereExists ?SUN (isa ?SUN Star))
      

      "If anything is a planet, there exists something that is a star."



    1. (implies
         (and
            (father ?CHILD ?PARENT)
            (siblings ?PARENT ?SIB)
            (isa ?SIB FemalePerson))
         (aunts ?CHILD ?SIB))
      

      "Any child's father's female sibling is its aunt."



    1. (implies
         (orbits ?X ?Y)
         (thereExists ?PATH
            (thereExists ?ORBITING-MOVEMENT
               (and
                  (isa ?PATH OrbitalPath)
                  (surrounds-Ringlike ?PATH ?Y)
                  (traverses-Complete ?ORBITING-MOVEMENT ?PATH)
                  (objectMoving ?ORBITING-MOVEMENT ?X)))))
      

      "For any X and any Y, if X orbits Y then there is an orbital path that surrounds Y in a ringlike way, and X moves completely along that orbital path."



    1. (implies
         (and
            (isa ?EXP ExperiencingHunger)
            (doneBy ?EXP ?ANI)
            (isa ?ANI Animal))
         (desires ?ANI
               (thereExists ?EAT
                  (and
                     (isa ?EAT EatingEvent)
                     (performedBy ?EAT ?ANI)))))
      

      "Hungry animals want to eat."

 

 

 

Part 2: English to CycL translation

Using the suggested CycL vocabulary, translate the following English sentences into well-formed CycL assertions.

Logical Terms
Predicates
Attributes

#$thereExists

#$feelsEmotion #$feelsTowardsEvent

#$High

#$thereExistAtLeast

#$holdsIn #$genls #$Medium

#$thereExistAtMost

#$objectActedOn #$hasAttributes #$Low

#$forAll

#$eventOccursAt #$isa  

#$and

#$anatomicalParts #$performedBy  

#$implies

#$hasPets #$likesRoleInActivity  

#$not

#$employees #$feelsTowardEvent  
    #$temperament  
Individuals
Collections
Functions

#$Rover

#$Enjoyment #$Primate #$DeadFn

#$Blake

#$Chewing #$ShapeType  

#$Cycorp

#$Circle #$Swimming-Generic  
  #$Dog #$Tail  
  #$DomesticPet #$TwoDimensionalShape  
  #$Lake #$Bone-BodyPart  
  #$Person #$Viciousness  
       
       
    1. Rover is Blake's pet.
(#$hasPets #$Blake #$Rover)
    1. Rover is the pet of a Cycorp employee.
(#$thereExists ?EMP 
   (#$and 
      (#$employees #$Cycorp ?EMP) 
      (#$hasPets ?EMP #$Rover)) 
    1. Blake has at least one pet.
(#$thereExists ?PET (#$hasPets #$Blake ?PET)) 
    1. Everyone who works at Cycorp has at least one pet.
(#$implies 
   (#$employees #$Cycorp ?EMP) 
   (#$thereExists ?PET (#$hasPets ?EMP ?PET)))
    1. Every pet of a Cycorp employee has at most one tail.
(#$implies 
   (#$and 
      (#$employees #$Cycorp ?EMP) 
      (#$hasPets ?EMP ?PET)) 
   (#$thereExistAtMost 1 ?TAIL 
      (#$and 
         (#$anatomicalParts ?PET ?TAIL) 
         (#$isa ?TAIL #$Tail))) 
    1. Rover is swimming in a lake. (Do this without naming the swimming event in question.)
(#$thereExists ?SWIMMING 
   (#$thereExists ?LAKE 
      (#$and 
         (#$isa ?SWIMMING #$Swimming-Generic) 
         (#$performedBy ?SWIMMING #$Rover) 
         (#$eventOccursAt ?SWIMMING ?LAKE) 
         (#$isa ?LAKE #$Lake))))
    1. Rover is chewing on a bone.
(#$thereExists ?CHEWING 
   (#$thereExists ?BONE 
      (#$and 
         (#$isa ?CHEWING #$Chewing) 
         (#$performedBy ?CHEWING #$Rover) 
         (#$objectActedOn ?CHEWING ?BONE) 
         (#$isa ?BONE #$Bone-BodyPart))))
    1. Dogs really like to chew on bones.
(#$implies 
   (#$and 
      (#$isa ?BONE #$Bone-BodyPart) 
      (#$isa ?DOG #$Dog) 
      (#$isa ?CHEWING #$Chewing) 
      (#$performedBy ?CHEWING ?DOG) 
      (#$objectActedOn ?CHEWING ?BONE)) 
   (#$feelsTowardsEvent ?DOG ?CHEWING #$Enjoyment #$High))
    1. Circles are shapes.
(#$isa #$Circle #$ShapeType)
    1. All people are primates.
(#$genls #$Person #$Primate)
    1. All dogs are highly vicious.
(#$implies 
   (#$isa ?CUJO #$Dog) 
   (#$temperament ?CUJO #$Viciousness #$High))

 

Part 3: Relating constants

Vocabulary:

(#$isa X Y)

X is an instance of Y

(#$genls X Y)

Every instance of X is an instance of Y

(#$performedBy X Y)

X is/was performed by Y

(#$mainColorOfObject X Y)

The main color of X is Y

#$Rover

the dog depicted in the image above

#$RoverSwimmingInTheLake

the event depicted in the image above

#$BeigeColor

an individual attribute, and #$Rover's color

#$Dog

the collection of all dogs

#$Mammal

the collection of all mammals

#$Color

the collection of color attributes

#$PhysicalAttribute

a collection of attributes

Using the vocabulary provided above, write a CycL sentence expressing the relationship, if any, between the following pairs of constants:

 

    1. #$Rover and #$Dog



(#$isa #$Rover #$Dog)

The explanation: #$Dog is the collection of all dogs, and Rover is a dog, so #$Rover is an instance of #$Dog.

    1. #$Rover and #$Mammal



(#$isa #$Rover #$Mammal)

The explanation: #$Mammal is the collection of all mammals, and Rover is a mammal, so #$Rover is an instance of #$Mammal.

    1. #$RoverSwimmingInTheLake and #$Rover



(#$performedBy #$RoverSwimmingInTheLake #$Rover)

The explanation: Rover is the entity that intentionally performs the event #$RoverSwimmingInTheLake.

    1. #$Rover and #$BeigeColor



(#$mainColorOfObject #$Rover #$BeigeColor)

The explanation: Rover's color is denoted by the CycL constant #$BeigeColor.

    1. #$BeigeColor and #$Color



(#$isa #$BeigeColor #$Color)

The explanation: #$BeigeColor is a color attribute, and #$Color is the collection of all color attributes, so #$BeigeColor is an instance of #$Color.

    1. #$BeigeColor and #$PhysicalAttribute



(#$isa #$BeigeColor #$PhysicalAttribute)

The explanation: #$BeigeColor is an instance of #$Color, and (#$genls #$Color #$PhysicalAttribute), so #$BeigeColor is an instance of #$PhysicalAttribute.